Sterilization Process, Food sterilization, Pharmacy sterilization, Retort food sterilization

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Basic discussion of high temperature sterilization and high pressure sterilization

What is high temperature sterilization, What is high pressure sterilization

  1. High temperature sterilization
    • The sterilizing temperature was above the water boiling point 100 C ( 212 F); at the field of sterilizing engineering, This was " high temperature sterilization"
  2. High pressure sterilization
    • The sterilizer oven pressure was above atmospheric pressure, at the field of sterilizing engineering, This was " high pressure sterilization"

Mechanical property relation between temperature and pressure

  1. Phase equilibrium: Heat source was steam
    • Physics equilibrium
    • In the pressure oven the steam temperature above 100 C ( 212 F), the oven pressure should above atmospheric pressure, ( the gage pressure over 0 )
    • The oven pressure was under atmospheric pressure, the steam would change its phase to vapor and condensed water, the temperature should under 100 C ( 212 F)
  2. Mechanical thermal equilibrium
    • During the sterilizing process, at heating process the temperature was rise up, the inner pressure of container was increase too, to avoid the package broken, should have the over pressure to keep the outside pressure was higher then the container inner pressure
    • During cooling process, the inner temperature of container always higher then the outside temperature of container, the inner pressure was higher then outside pressure too, Its should have over pressure to balance the pressure differential, otherwise the inner pressure would expand the container volume, till the package material or seal was broken

Why high temperature sterilization

  1. For health : Don't need add chemical preservatives, at high temperature the bacterial would be fully killed, high temperature sterilized food was safe and health
  2. For food store high temperature sterilized food could be store at room temperature for a long time, the term of validity from 6 months to 2 years; the warehouse don't need any air conditioner or refrigeration
  3. For food transportation : The container could be tin can, metal canned, plastic package material, glass container; flexible retort pouch etc. etc ; Its easy for transportation

Why the sterilization temperature was 250 F ( 121 C )

  1. From FDA & NASA : At 1960s the NASA should supply a absolutely safety food for the spaceman during space mission, NASA corporate with FDA to research the safety food process, Then had the safety food regulation ( HACCP )
  2. Why sterilization temperature was 250 F : From laboratory testing, almost all bacterial would thermal death at 250F at some time
  3. How to confirm the sterilizing process : The sterilization F value was confirm the sterilizing process, kinds of food had different sterilization F value to ensure the sterilizing process was done
  4. For some reason of nutrition preservation, maybe the sterilization temperature would out of 121 C ( 250 F), or under this temperature, Anyway the sterilization F value should be fully sufficiency

How to do the high temperature sterilization process

  1. Food sterilization package material : The package material should be heat resistant material, heat resistant range was at 130C ( 265F) , over 25mins, the container can't be out of shape and could not have any chemical precipitation
  2. Food container : The container should be perfect sealing, can't be have any leaking, or crack, or broken
  3. Decide the thermal process of food sterilizing process :
    1. Select the sterilization F value; This sterilization F value was following the regulation of the government administration
    2. Find the cold point by temperature distribution studies
    3. Decide sterilization time by heat penetration testing
    4. Setting the program of thermal history
    5. Bacterial cultivation testing to confirm the sterilizing process

Who invented the high temperature sterilization process

Frenchman Nicholas Appert (1749 to 1841) invented the high temperature sterilization technology at 1809
At 1795, Napoleon Bonaparte offered amount of 12,000 francs to find a method of food preservation technology, to improve food supply at war
At 1809, Nicholas Appert receives praise from Napoleon.
He used wide glass jars that were sealed with corks, then cooking it about 60 minutes This was the begging of high temperature sterilization process......

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